Fire is a real risk in many areas of the world.
- Stay informed and follow all advice authorities provide.
- Avoid trips into remote areas when there are extreme fire conditions forecast.
- If there is a risk, consider leaving the area. Additional people in fire zones make the jobs of the Firies and other support crews harder as their resources are spread thinner protecting everybody.
- Dry lightning strikes are a common cause of fires in remote areas. If you hear thunder, stay vigilant!
- If you are caught up in a bushfire, avoid the radiant heat by escaping into water or large clearings. A rock or earth barrier could help.
- Normally fires will burn uphill much faster than downhill. If you are in a defendable position in say a river, consider the risks if you try to escape the fire by moving into higher ground.
- Use natural fibre clothing. Thick woollen or leather clothes are best. Synthetic may melt and stick to your skin.
- After the fire has past, stay vigilant. Many fatalities occur due to falling trees / infrastructure that were damaged in the main fire.
In Australia we are having our worst ever fire season due to hotter conditions on top of a prolonged drought.
Source: Bushfire weather, Bureau of Meteorology.
The Corryong (Green Valley) fire started the day I had left the area when dry lightning struck and provides an excellent example about the dangers.
Just four days later, it has grown to 104,000 hectares in size and is currently affecting every area of the upper Murray River, including many places from my trip such as;
- Cascade trailhead (intersects the only road through the area),
- Tin Mine & Leather Barrel confluences (no communication and multiple day walk to escape),
- Tom Groggin Campground (base camp for the trip), and
- the fire front is currently burning through the entire 35 km length of the Murray River Gorge.
Even if I was safe, this would have completely ruined all of my plans if I was still in the area. Kosciuszko National Park was closed with mandatory evacuations yesterday, with a state of emergency mandating evacuation of nearby towns including Biggara, Khancoban and Towong today. Conditions are expected to get worse tomorrow where it could potentially merge up with other fires to both the north and south, creating a massive mega-fire.
Giving an honourable mention to our little legless friends.
Firstly, remember that horses and honey bees are much more likely to kill than these little guys, and secondly, most snake bites occur when people are attacking or trying to handle the snake.
In fact, an unprovoked fatal snake bite has similar odds to being killed by lightning or having a coconut falling on you when you are in the tropics!
- Watch where you step and sit, including at night by using a bright touch. Many snakes are nocturnal.
- Walk nosily and consider using long walking sticks to poke the ground in front of you. Albeit, avoid poking off to the side of a track too much, I've accidentally disturbed a snake into my path doing that before and nearly stood on the poor little fellow.
- Avoid places where snakes might live such as fairly much anywhere off the track where they get some cover. Snakes are generally low down in the food chain and seek out places to hide to avoid being eaten by birds and other predators.
- Wearing high boots and loose long pants. Long gaiters should be considered if hiking off trail.
- Keep a clean camp to avoid attracting vermin that in turn could attract snakes.
- Never attempt to catch or kill a snake. This is the most common reason why people get bitten. It is also illegal to kill or harm snakes in Australia.
This is informational only and you should get training by professionals on proper care of snake bites.
- Stay calm and keep the patient as still as possible.
- Call 000 or activate any emergency beacons.
- Use the pressure immobilisation technique to slow the spread of the venom. The bandages should be confitable enough for the patient to leave these on for several hours.
- Do not try to capture the snake.
- Do not cut, suck or wash the bite site. Skin tests can be used to determine what snake bite the patient.
- Do not apply an arterial tourniquet.
Please refer to the Australian Venom Research Unit for more information and consider first-aid training courses.
According to the World Health Organisation, there are about a half million deaths worldwide due to water borne diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid, and even polio. Polluted water is no joke!
In Australia, the biggest risk is from Cryptosporidium in remote areas, Giardia and other common agricultural borne bacteria. Australia reports the second highest rate of cryptosporidium illness in humans across developed nations, especially with children in remote areas. These are worse in times of drought.
Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) are common, particularly in summer where there are low flows. Some of these algae produce toxins or chemicals that can affect the taste and odour of the water, as well as making it dangerous to drink. Activated carbon (removal) and chlorine (oxidation) help to reduce toxin levels, but it is best to avoid this water completely.
Basically, boil, filter or chemically treat all water before you drink this:
- After the water has reached a rolling boil, it should be removed from the heat, allowed to cool naturally, without the addition of ice. This should be sufficient to inactivate pathogenic bacteria, viruses and protozoa. (WHO) When boiling the water, use a lid or cover to avoid a smoky taste in the water.
- There are many options on the market, and most filters that are portable do not filter viruses. This is mostly a concern for third world countries where water borne viruses are more common. These range for cheap sawyer life straws through to pump / gravity filters. The best choice is dependent on the conditions that you will experience and the number of people in the team.
Purchased tablets usually contain sodium chlorite, iodine compounds and / or sodium dichloroisocyanurate. Most should provide effective measures against most pathogenic agents, however Cryptosporidium treatment is limited to sodium dichloroisocyanurate such as those found in Katadyn Micropur Forte tablets as well as some other brands. Treatment takes much longer to ensure all Cryptosporidium is removed, 4 hrs for the Katadyn Micropur Forte tablets.
Water may be disinfected using household bleach containing chlorine, but not containing added perfumes, ammonia or other detergents. Rate depends on the amount of available chlorine (double the rate for turbid water) and allow to stand for at least 30 minutes. You should notice a slight chloride order but this will dissipate if you let the water stand for longer. It seems harder to find plain bleach these days! The WA government contains a lot of information on emergency water treatment options.
I personally dislike the taste of all of the chemical treatment options, and would only carry water treatment tablets as a last resort option where I couldn't filter or boil the water.
Turbid water can settle overnight in many areas. This will ensure a longer life of water filters and to improve the taste of the water. In really bad conditions, chemical agents such as alum (aluminium sulphate) as a flocculent.
Sock filters and Mil bank bags can be used as a pre-filter filter to remove large particulates from the water.
- Sock filter
- A sock filter is simply sand, charcoal, small stones and grass in a sock and water is run through it.
- Milbank bag
- A Milbank bag is a canvas bag that you run the water through. Soak the Milbank bag before use to ensure the canvas absorbs water to provide a better filter.
There are a number of chemical agents used, but Alum seems to be the most common and can be purchased in swimming pool supplies. The Alum rates is 15mg/L to 100mg/L and the pH should be within the 6.5 - 7.5 range. The correct dose of alum will flocculate suspended solids in the water together into large fluffy lumps. These will then be heavy enough to settle out the water naturally within an hour or two. It is recommended that you first test in a jar to determine the correct dosage but I found it easier to test the dosage in the final container due to the minimal amount of Alum required.
I found that I really needed hardly any Alum when I used it for the first time. Literally, only 3 pinches were used to treat 13 L of water. If I had the dosage right, you would see signs of flocculation within minutes where suspended particles clump together, and it would take about an hour for the water to fully clear. If it fully cleared within minutes, I would restart with a lower dose. If there were minimal / no signs after 10 minutes, I would increase the dosage. The sedimentation process would usually need at least 5 or 6 hours to complete, so I would leave the container sitting overnight. I also treated myself to clear water in my solar shower, and I just used a higher dose to quickly clear the water. In the field it can be difficult to decant the clean water without disturbing the Alum too. I found a siphon hose great for doing this, borrowed from my solar shower!
For my upper Murray trip, I used a life straw for the alpine areas where there was high water quality, and it worked for 2 weeks before the bag / connections died and I was forced to boil my water. There should be enough towns to simply collect 3 to 6 days at a time. For my Darling trip, town supply water will be carried, but longer legs will require treatment of the rather muddy water. Two step process where the water is first clarified overnight using Alum, then boiling the water on a campfire to treat. A ceramic filter was carried as a backup measure as well as some chemical treatment tablets.